Posted in 1940s Fashion, 1950s Fashion, Costume In Museums, Fashion History, Fashion Museums, History Of 20th Century Fashion, History of Sewing, Oral History, Social History, The History Of Dressmaking, The History Of Haute Couture, Vintage Fashion Blog, Vintage Fashion History

Fashion History: The D Day Museum, Southsea – Uniform, Clothes Rationing and Make Do and Mend

Uniform-D-Day-Museum-image-Copyright-Carrie-Henderson-2016There were two ‘uniforms’ during WW2; the ones that the armed forces and voluntary services wore and the second was the uniform supply and control measures the government imposed on the population of Britain.

From the outset, the government knew that clothing the people of Britain was the elephant in the room in terms of managing WW2.

Wars are expensive; they require man (and woman) power, raw materials, armaments up to the job and enough of a profit to cover costs.  That wasn’t all; the armed forces must be clothed and factories must still manufacture what was required whilst their working men were unavailable and away.

The Anderson Shelter. Dug into the gardens of many homes, protecting against The Blitz.
The Anderson Shelter. Dug into the gardens of many homes, protecting against The Blitz.

The blockade of Europe and danger in the seas meant essential supplies of raw materials like wool, silk and cotton would fast run out. Fabric and clothing production, a thriving industry at the outset of the war in 1939 was also inefficient and wasteful.

Factories were needed to produce the millions of yards of material required to clothe people in uniform instead of the frilly and frivolous fashions of the late 1930s.

Keep Calm and Drink Tea: The D Day Museum's cafe surrounded by the clothing of war.
Keep Calm and Drink Tea: The D Day Museum’s cafe surrounded by the clothing of war.

Wasteful of fabrics in short supply, a simple thing like adding a large hem to a skirt or embroidery to a dressing gown could save thousands of hours of man power and materials required elsewhere.

Working for the war effort: woman were employed in their millions to aid the war effort.
Working for the war effort: woman were employed in their millions to aid the war effort.

Zips were a no-no as the metal was needed for armaments, as was elastic, and silk for silk stockings were needed for parachutes.

Very quickly dressmakers and manufacturers were told that they didn’t have design freedom any longer and Austerity Regulations and Limitation Of Supply Orders – or LIMOSO’s – set out what they could and couldn’t use when designing or running up an item of clothing.

Parachute Silk was used to make wedding dresses and offcuts or mistakes in factories taken to make bras and knickers.
Parachute Silk was used to make wedding dresses and offcuts or mistakes in factories taken to make bras and knickers.

With the outbreak of war, inflation affected prices and the rarer commodities like silk started to shoot up in the shops. Inflation had to be kept under control and the economics of pricing became a hot issue; something had to give.

The government accepted it had to control all aspects of clothing supply, manufacture and retail. Initially it looked back on the lessons learned during World War 1 when a form of standard suit was devised to clothe the people of Britain.

They didn’t want to do the same, so unpopular was it, but needs must and from June 1st, 1941, Clothes Rationing was introduced across Great Britain.

Information plaque about the parachute wedding dress.
Information plaque about the parachute wedding dress.

Whitehall was particularly concerned about the poor and working class who were perceived to be suffering most from the materials shortages affecting clothes production and supply.

Middle and upper class women had large wardrobes that could survive rationing, they thought, but the working class didn’t.

To address this, by 1942 the Utility Scheme was fully rolled out which produced clothing with quality cloth and materials designed and manufactured to Austerity Regulations. Utility Clothing was in the shops at fixed prices to ensure affordable clothing was available for all people across the land.

Knitting for the forces: women knitted for the men overseas and the gloves, balaclavas and woollies were gratefully received.
Knitting for the forces: women knitted for the men overseas and the gloves, balaclavas and woollies were gratefully received.

It attracted none of the new and dreaded Purchase Tax which affected all non-essential items.

Utility was cheaper, of better quality and more long lasting than non-utility items. For the first time working class women could buy well designed, well made clothing to survive the war years regardless of income.

War was different for those with more money at their disposal. They were used to buying for pleasure and to dress for the right social occasions but it didn’t make any difference to the government, they restricted how many items of clothing could be bought by anyone in the country.

The press coined a phrase to describe the actions of government and “Wartime Socialism” was born.

On the Whitsun Bank Holiday Sunday of June 1941 a wireless broadcast told retailers and the British public that from opening on Tuesday morning, all clothing would be rationed. Margarine coupons were initially used but later on dedicated clothes rationing books were circulated.

Mrs Sew and Sew gives the rules that working class women already understood.
Mrs Sew and Sew gives the rules that working class women already understood.

Clothes had points allocated to them, usually determined by square yardage of cloth and whether the government deemed them necessary or a luxury item. Each point or half point was worth a full or half coupon.

People were told how many points they had to ‘spend’ over periods of time, 66 in the first year and less and less as the war drew onwards.

When spending on clothing people exchanged their coupons and paid cash also. When they ran out that was that, there were no more coupons to spend for anyone.

Budgeting for how many points you had was a national occupation and a source of misery for many.  Although forces uniforms were not rationed, things like knickers and maternity clothes were. The government adopted a form of market research to respond to national need and changes were made regularly, filling the columns of newspapers and fashion magazines.

The beauty of war: the map showing the seascape between Britain and occupied Europe.
The beauty of war: the map showing the seascape between Britain and occupied Europe.

It was no good moaning; the government was entirely in control.

Many people commented that Mrs Sew and Sew’s advice in the famous Make Do and Mend campaign had been part of working class life forever and wearing second hand clothes and hand-me-downs was no different during the war than beforehand.

The wealthy who did have money to spend regardless of rationing tried other methods and the black market thrived on those with cash to spare.

Purchase Tax was implemented to prevent the buying of luxury goods; fur coats, a common staple of many a woman’s wardrobe, attracted 100% Purchase Tax for instance. That meant you paid the retail price to the shopkeeper then exactly the same amount again went to the government – very pricey.

Women's clothing was rationed and controlled. All made sacrifices for the war effort.
Women’s clothing was rationed and controlled. All made sacrifices for the war effort.

Buying luxury was expensive and prevented excessive spending on items that weren’t necessary – after all if everyone bought unnecessary items, factories would have to produce them to demand and they were focused on war.

Eventually the country learned to knuckle down and see it out. Whether you were rich or poor, the regulations applied and everyone did their patriotic bit to adapt.

 

Southsea, near Portsmouth was no different from anywhere else in the country in what it had to endure.

D-Day-Museum-Exterior-image-Copyright-Carrie-Henderson-2016On the shoreline of the beach there is a museum dedicated to D Day, which took place on 6th June 1944.

It is appropriate that the museum is situated there as The Solent holds a long military and naval history. The castle looking across to The Isle Of Wight has existed in one form or another since Tudor times.

Southsea Castle. A setting with a clear blue view to the sea.
Southsea Castle. A setting with a clear blue view to the sea.

The Mary Rose, Henry V111’ths ship which sunk in 1545 resides in its low lit museum in the Portsmouth Dockyard.

The D Day Museum itself houses The Overlord Tapestry, a modern interpretation of the Bayeux which stitches together scenes from that day in a long piece of embroidery circling the main room.

The impact of the government’s measures in respect of clothing and apparel in WW2 was an enormous undertaking both for Whitehall administratively and for the people of Britain to comprehend and live through. Everyone but everyone was affected; women, men and children did not escape and those in the forces also.

When all rationing ended in 1952, the war years had seen a massive change to clothing and fashion.

Not only about the sirens: changes to clothing made during WW2 has an influence felt even today.
Not only about the sirens: changes to clothing made during WW2 has an influence felt even today.

The change was both attitudinal and practical; the efficiencies that the government implemented were strong enough to bear any national dislike and the influence of them affects fashions and expert consideration of those restrictions even today. 

Throughout the D Day museum, the exhibits show how wartime fashion worked on the ground; for those in uniform, getting married, knitting for the forces or wearing Utility designs.

It is an extraordinary museum which isn’t only about the conflict – the presence of the Overlord Tapestry emphasises the great importance of the needle trades to Britain and the creativity, craft, ingenuity and adaptation that the British public made overall.

© Carrie Henderson 2016

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Posted in 1920s Fashion, 1930s Fashion, 1940s Fashion, 1950s Fashion, 1960s Fashion, 1970s Fashion, Book Reviews, History Of 20th Century Fashion, History Of 20th Century Fashion In Hull, History Of Hull, History of Sewing, Hull Fashion, Hull Retail History, Oral History, Social History, The History Of Dressmaking, Vintage Fashion Blog, Vintage Fashion History, Vintage Fashion Research, Vintage Wedding Dresses

Hull History: Life In Hull From Then Till Now , A Book by Kay Pearson, Mum, Musician and Social Historian.

The jiffy envelope from the second hand book seller arrived in time for Christmas.

Inside photograph from Kay Pearson's book Life In Hull From Then Till Now.
Kay loved music throughout her life, working in music hall, theatre, dance halls and in people’s homes tickling the ivories.

When I reached in to pull out the book I discovered that it wasn’t the size I’d expected – it was much smaller and lighter in my hands.

I ran my fingers over the textured leather cover feeling the dips of the gold picture and the white lettering before I opened it up and saw the face of Kay Pearson looking back at me. She was pictured at a piano surrounded by friends.

I am lucky to own a copy of Life In Hull From Then Till Now, it is a book long out of print.

It was published in 1978  after a story about Kay Pearson’s life was featured in the Hull Daily Mail’s Jane Humber section.

The publisher, Bradley Publications and Co, was as tickled by her story as the ivories that Kay played from childhood.

I’m also lucky to have this book because Kay’s story spans over 70 years of history in Hull from the turn of the 19th to the 20th Century until the 1970s.

This was a time of enormous social change for women, people in Hull and the UK generally.

Her story is told without artifice, flourish or it seems, that much conscious editing and it’s good for it. It’s retained a feel of someone sitting down at an old-fashioned typewriter to recount their life from start to the point when it was written.

At one point at the outbreak of the Boer War, the typeface even changes, as if the moment was a rift in time that could never be breached.

Page 80 of the book Life In Hull From Then Till Now by Kay Pearson.
Page 80 of the book. At the outbreak of the Boer War, the typeface mysteriously changes.

Kay’s voice speaks clearly from the pages. It reads as if she is talking out loud to an audience that she obviously enjoys.

Her life story is extraordinary. This is a spoiler free blog except to say that it’s the details of her life as a women that makes this book so fascinating.

It is at times a brutal account of female life: cleaning The Article, evidently an essential part of post-birth kit in the early part of the century, turned her 14 year old stomach and ours as reader also.

Her story has many up’s, down’s, dips and turns and at the same time charts the social history of women and the changes that the 20th century brought too.

Her stories of clothing make for fascinating reading.

By the time she’s in receipt of a widow’s pension in the 1950s she notes that one criteria of the pension is: “I must dress decently.”

This was given to her after the state stepped in and democratised fashion throughout the war years through the CC41 scheme, something that historians talk about benefiting the working classes of Britain more than those with money.

Throughout, Kay describes shopping, clothes, fabric and fashion in a way that reminds me that fashion as we know it these days has such a connotation to consumerism, extravagance and luxury.

There is an accompanying recognition of how, in comparison with ‘then,’ the ‘now’ is easy.

True poverty was part of Kay’s life.

At the turn of the century, her mother made a hearthrug from old bits of coats and trousers. Sometimes she’d “buy a soldiers old red uniform from the ragman that she’d cut into 2 inch strips and it made a splendid splash of colour on the ‘clipped mat’ as it was called.”

But she was an opportunist. She earned pennies on Sunday afternoons in the early 1900’s running errands because “men and woman enjoyed parading the whole length of Queen Street down to the pier and dress was not complete without a rose, gardenia or carnation to wear.”

Luckily her sisters were good needlewomen and helped her mother make a “new dress …in a delicate pink or grey,” so that she could wear it with rag dolled hair in a childhood performance.

She was still using this dress as a costume in 1978, it survived so well over the years.

To us these days, we’d think that it was a rare skill but Kay said that she wasn’t a skilled seamstress – despite this she handmade the outfits for her two daughter’s wedding days in 1941 and 1942.

It took her 16 weeks to prepare for the 1941 wedding: “there was materials to decide upon and purchase for the bride and bridesmaids. My daughter’s choice of wedding ensemble was plain, but choice, taking me exactly 10 weeks to complete.”

The inside cover of Life In Hull From Then Till Now by Kay Pearson showing it was published by Bradley Publications and Co, 39 High Street, Hull in 1980.
Bradley Publications and Co, 39 Hig Street, Hull. Written in November 1978 and the second edition published in 1980.

She adds detail that describes how precious this was in the horrors of the Hull Blitz:” I dread to think how many occasions I had to dismantle the gown from the hangers and store in numerous travel cases for safety, as air raids occurred.”

In 1942 her second daughter got married quickly, as was the trend at the time. Kay again made a wedding outfit from scratch after her daughter and her decided on “materials, styles and colours”.

By 1949, towards the end of rationing she looked back and recorded her thoughts: “All gowns, including my own, were complete for the great day, were really something, so much that I marvelled at my capabilities of dressmaking and a four tiered wedding cake into the bargain!”

We are left with this description to imagine the clothes she made.

And what of her own wardrobe?

“From the time I reached 15 years, I had saved up enough money to purchase mustard serge to have a costume made.** I purchased this from a shop called Sultans in Great Passage Street, the cost 3 shillings and 6d.

“A girl, apprentice to the trade, who did odd jobs of work on the side, made up the material at a charge of 5- and very nicely too – I felt a proper “swank” in it.”

And of her own wedding in 1915?

Evening Dress Circa 1900 - 1905 made of Ninon
Evening dress, ca. 1900-05. Made of “ninon” fabric (sheer, delicate material, probably silk in this dress.) This dress is far out of Kay’s reach, made instead for the affluent upper classes.

“Finances in our household were down to zero..to obtain a bridal gown was out of the question, however, material was purchased at a store Willis and Co, on the corner of Waterhouse and Carr Lane.

“Five yards of pale blue ninon*** at a sale, price 9 3/4 per yard. It cost 4 – 8 1/2 d.

“My eldest sister concocted a dress and jacket for me, and the left over pieces were made into two small head bonnets for the bridesmaids who were arrayed in white.

“My ensemble was made up of a straw hat trimmed with forget-me-nots, and a pair of my younger sisters shoes, I carried a bunch of flowers.”

Illustration from Life In Hull From Then Till Now by Kay Pearson.
A snapshot of time. Throughout the book, illustrations and photos of Old Hull are interspersed with Kay’s story. Some do not exist any longer since the Hull Blitz and regeneration of the City in the 50s, 60s and 70s.

Kay doesn’t include any photos of these family occasions, choosing instead to show pictures of Hull which are often faded and hard to make out on the page.

They are interspersed with snippets of programmes from performances she took part in or produced, and photos of herself performing in her later years also.

But one photo of her youngest daughter Betty, exists. It is the final photo in the book. Standing in her back garden, she is dancing for her mother as she took the photo.

She is smiling and holding the skirt of her dancing outfit which has the signs of being hand made also.

I’d ordered Life In Hull From Then Till Now, because I’m interested in Hull’s social history through oral history telling. That’s a phrase that means collecting and studying history through listening to people talking about the past.

Kay started to write aged 81 and that’s exactly what oral history is all about – talking about it and writing it all down. It’s part of the method I’m using in researching the House of Mirelle also.

As Kay said: “people always feature in any walk of life, some times fictitious, however every word you are about to read is fact and has needed no research.”

She was absolutely right.

Page 192 and 193 of Kay Pearson's book Life In Hull From Then Till Now.
The back of the book shows a receipt from a performance at Hull’s Tivoli Theatre on 13th April 1937 and a letterhead for her troupe, The Pearson Juveniles, used throughout the 1930s.

Kay Pearson was a musician, mother and without realising it, a pure social historian of Hull.

© Carrie Henderson 2016

 

** ‘Costume’ in this context describes a skirt suit.

*** ‘Ninon’ is an artificial fabric similar to Rayon.

All images here are reproduced from the book. Although the publishers are no longer active in Hull, acknowledgement goes out to them for the copyright and to Kay Pearson also.